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Krisha Aranha

Gwei to Ether Conversion – Ethereum Units Explained

By Krisha Aranha / August 25, 2018

Constantly having to covert Gwei to Ether for transaction/gas fees can be frustrating. The irony is that “gwei’ and all other ether units were created to rid user frustration and promote adoption. The intent was definitely well thought out - you can trust Vitalik & team with logical ideation. But perhaps we require a bit more insight on Ethereum’s units and its intent.  It may just alleviate our frustration for all future transactions.

Let’s just say Ethereum’s core team took a history lesson from bitcoin before they brought forth all the Ether Unit monsters.

What is Gwei? And All Other Ether Units …

In order to grasp the concept of ‘gwei’, lets begin with something we’re all familiar with:

The money in our wallets!
(or if you’re anything like me - the money in the deepest corner of your jeans pocket)

The money in our wallets, regardless of currency, likely also comes in denominations. But for the purpose of this explainer, lets focus on the US Dollar. 1 US Dollar has four denominations: Cents (1 cent), Nickles (5 cents), Dimes (10 cents), and Quarters (25 cents).

Like the US Dollar, Ether too has denominations.
Remember, "Ether" is the currency used within the Ethereum Blockchain. Not ‘Eth’, Not ‘Ethereum’. .... "Ether"

Ether has three primary denominations, namely (lowest to highest): 

  • Wei       
  • Gwei       
  • Finney    

In essence, ‘Gwei’ is simply a denomination of Ether - So when converting Gwei to Ether’ for gas, remember that ‘Gwei’ is Ether - Just a fraction of it. Similar to a regular economy, there are many microtransactions taking place on the Ethereum Blockchain that require payments in fractions.

Just like how a vendor wouldn’t ask you to pay “1/10th of a dollar” for a plastic bag (let’s be realistic - that’s all you’ll get), the ethereum blockchain wouldn’t ask you pay "0.0000021 ether" for transaction fees. It’s just a difficult price to convey.

Instead, you’d be asked to pay 10 cents for the plastic bag, and 2100 gwei for transaction fees. Sounds much better, doesn’t it?

When dealing with currency, fractions are difficult to convey, tedious to convert, and aren’t very user friendly. Hence, the introduction of user friendly denominations, like Gwei.

Gwei to Ether and More - A Future-Proof Ethereum

When considering all three ether units: Wei, Gwei & Finney, you can’t help but wonder - ' why couldn’t Ethereum decide on one denomination? Gwei to ether and vice versa? '
Note: There are actually 10 different ether units, 3 wasn’t too bad a compromise.

It appears that Vitalik was looking to future proof Ethereum so that people could always have an open dialogue about ether in varying quantities regardless of ether price.

the goal of specifying suggestions for all of them was to have some schelling point on what to use for smaller denominations so that people could easily talk about varying quantities of ether regardless of whether the ETH price was $0.01, $10 or $100,000 - Vitalik Buterin

All suggested ethereum units were meant to be a schelling point (an anchor term like cents) depending on various use cases. For now, the three primary ether denominations were meant for the following ether:

  • Finney = for micropayments
  • Gwei = for gas prices
  • Wei = for discussion around APIs and other use cases

If ether’s value skyrockets like that of bitcoin, we’d likely see a rise in ‘finney’ in various ether uses and discussions.

Top Ether Transaction Fee Calculators & Converters 

Menu

ETH Gas Station - Tx Fee Calculator

  • Ether transaction fee prediction based on your set Gas limit & Gwei price

  • Gwei price/Gas price recommendations based on ethereum network conditions
  • Ethereum transaction confirmation time estimator
  • Real-time network ether transcation fee & network stats

Gwei to Ether Unit Converter

  • Easy 'one-input' conversions for all 10 Ether units

  • 3 Primary Ether units: Ether to Gwei; Ether to Finney; Ether to Wei 

  • 2 Ether-Fiat conversions: Ether to USD, Ether to Eur

EtherScan Gas Tracker

  • Safe-low Gwei Price Estimator

  • Proposed Gwei/Gas Price

  • Ethereum network block count

  • Transaction Confirmation Duration Estimate 

Gwei to USD Converter

  • Gwei to fiat conversions: USD, CAD, EUR, GBP and more

  • Gwei to Ether conversion

  • Supports all 10 ethereum unit conversions + fiat conversions

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Blockchain Types: Public vs Permissioned Blockchains

In this post, Krisha explains the 2 Types of Blockchains - Public vs Permissioned Blockchains

We have witnessed the term “blockchain” evolve from something dark and unknown, to the hottest topic on the block. While many are drawn to the ‘Investment’ opportunities that the technology presents, others have latched onto the efficiencies that blockchain promises.

This disparity in interests has prompted questions on the multiple types of blockchains available. Questions like, 'Which type of blockchain would best serve an individual's or company’s interests?"

However, when broken down simply, you’ll realize that there’s only one pivotal difference between each of these blockchain types: 

The need for Permission to participate in each of them.

In essence, every blockchain can be categorized under one of these 2 types:
Public (Permissionless) Blockchain
Permissioned Blockchain

Blockchain Consensus Rules All

A Blockchain's Consensus Mechanism allows participants to come to agreement on a truth that the network was intended to acertain.

The context of permission in blockchain lies within this Consensus mechanism.

Depending on the type of blockchain, an individual or entity may or may not require permission to participate in the consensus process.

  • In Public (Open) Blockchains, no permission is required whatsoever. Anyone can participate in the consensus process.

  • In Permissioned Blockchains, an individual will require permission to participate in the consensus process.

A Little Perspective - The blockchain consensus mechanism is akin to a jury in a case trial. A jury reaches consensus on the final verdict - they agree on the truth. Consensus is as crucial a function to blockchain, as it is to a case trial.

​​​​Public vs Permissioned Blockchains


In Public Blockchains, anyone can participate in the consensus process. The network is open for Public use in every capacity. Public blockchains are “permissionless blockchains”, and are considered as “fully decentralized”

An individual/entity does not require permission to …

  • Send/ receive transactions on the network
  • Read the transactions on the chain
  • Secure the integrity of the network by validating transactions and participating in the consensus process (i.e - being a node).

In Permissioned Blockchains however, the consensus process is either controlled by a group of known entities, or a single entity.

The network requires permission for one or all of the following:


  • Send/ receive transactions on the network - Write permissions
  • Read the transactions/events on the chain - Read permissions

A Permissioned Blockchain controlled by a single entity can be deemed a 'Private Blockchain' - A subset of permissioned blockchains

 Private vs Permissioned Blockchains

Permissioned vs Private Blockchain

Note that The lower the number of entities participating in the consensus process, the more centralized the network. 

Permissioned Blockchains? For What?

At this point you’re probably wondering: “Don’t permissioned blockchains defeat the idea of a ‘decentralized’ network’?”

Simple Answer: 
Yes, it does. But permissioned blockchains are more than willing to make that trade-off. 
Confused?? Think back to the blockchain trilemma

The blockchain trilemma states that one sacrifice will have to be made among the three: SecurityScalability and Decentralization

Permissioned blockchains choose to sacrifice Decentralization for Security and Scalability

The sacrifice of decentralization in favour for security and scalability is particularly attractive to large entities. It enables them to leverage blockchain’s cryptographic security measures, and still ensure scalability to meet the needs of a growing customer base.

As of now, permissioned blockchains are the only viable solution for large entities looking to implement blockchain technology. This may change in the future if public blockchains break the trilemma, and learn to scale.

Wrapping Up

The difference between public and permissioned blockchains ultimately boils down to, " who gets to participate in the consensus process ? " - Every network participant? Few known, trusted entities? Or one single entity?

Between Scalability, Security and Decentralization – a tradeoff needs to made. As things stand, Public blockchains have sacrificed scalability, while Permissioned blockchains sacrificed decentralization.

Both, Public and Permissioned Blockchains have their pros and cons. Depending on who you ask, and where their interests lie, one will always be more beneficial than the other.

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What Is Blockchain Immutability? – A Secure Tamper Proof Database

Krisha breaks down the concept of blockchain immutability. In addition, she also explains the importance of a blockchain being tamper-proof to claim 'Immutability' , and 'why' being immutable is important to many.

It was the devastating effects of the 2008 financial crisis that gave way to the rise of blockchain technology, in particular, the bitcoin blockchain.

The bitcoin blockchain is revolutionary because it enables the world to transact without the need of a middleman. This elimination of the centuries old middleman was partly due to one inherent property of the bitcoin blockchain - Immutability

Lets breakdown the term: Immutable

  • Immutable in the dictionary is - “Unchanging over time or unable to be changed

  • Immutable in blockchain is - "The inability of a block to be deleted or modified once it is in the blockchain" - An immutable ledger

​​​​You’re probably wondering: 
" Why is blockchain immutability so important in knocking off the middleman anyways? "

It is the property of  immutability  in the Bitcoin blockchain that gives users the assurance that their wealth and information cannot be tampered with. Such an “assurance” is normally given to us by middlemen - Banks, Schools etc. And we often take them up on that assurance, and bestow our trust upon them.

Unlike middlemen, you don’t have to trust the bitcoin blockchain to be sure your wealth and information will be protected - It is a trustless system. And an Immutable blockchain allows for that. In fact, it is one of the key pillar stones of the Bitcoin blockchain.

Immutable Blockchain: Tamper Proof vs Tamper Evident

Blockchain Immutability is often misunderstood – even among industry enthusiasts. To truly understand the essence of blockchain immutability, we need to clear out the confusion between Tamper Evident & Tamper Proof.

  • Tamper Evident - An object cannot be tampered with, without it going unnoticed

  • Tamper Proof - An object cannot be tampered with

To be truly Immutable, you need to be Tamper PROOF. Being Tamper Evident is not enough. Several Blockchains falsely claim immutability when they are merely Tamper Evident.

If you were tasked to come up with a list of things that cannot be changed, and is indeed Tamper Proof, you probably wouldn’t get very far (Go ahead! Give it a shot). Almost everything is susceptible to change, and things that are susceptible to change cannot be Tamper Proof.

Blockchain Immutability Is Relative

To put into perspective, lets go over a few rudimentary things we deal with on an everyday basis:

Toothpaste
Try squeezing out all the toothpaste from a tube, and putting it back in. It’d be difficult, tedious, and evident that it has been tampered with - It would be Tamper Evident

Emails
Emails that have been sent out cannot be “un-sent”. Although, through an individual perspective, emails can be quite “immutable”. However, you can always persuade the recipient of the email, or the person running the mail server to delete it. Once again, difficult, and not without risk of detection - This too, is Tamper Evident


Notice how even the most immutable things on an individual perspective can be changed someway or the other. The only difference is that somethings are harder to change than others - Immutability is relative.

Everything can be changed. To say something can never be changed, is us discounting the progress of technology.

How Is A Blockchain Immutable? - The Maximum Degree Of Difficulty

At this point you’re probably wondering, “Alright, if everything CAN be changed, how exactly is the bitcoin blockchain immutable?

Since almost everything can be changed, we define "Immutability" in practical terms:
" The maximum degree of difficulty to change something "

  • Essentially, How difficult is it to edit the bitcoin blockchain? 

  • Hard?
  • Super Hard?
  • The hardest thing to change in the world?

The Bitcoin Blockchain lies at that maximum degree of difficulty - It is, currently, one of the most difficult things to change in the world. Making it the highest standard of security achieved thus far.

Most people, when asked, cite “the blockchain” as the reason behind Bitcoin's Immutable nature. However, it isn’t the "blockchain" that makes bitcoin immutable, but its Proof of Work consensus method. 

The Proof Of Work that backs the Bitcoin Network is what makes it’s blockchain “the hardest thing to change in the world”. The "Work", aka electricity/hashpower, earned bitcoin its badge of Maximum Immutability. (So to speak - will discuss this more in a separate post).

  • For now, it’s important to note that Blockchains are inherently Tamper Evident due to the underlying data structure, but not all blockchains are Tamper Proof.​​ Only a tamper-proof blockchain can be immutable.


Bitcoin Blockchain - The Immutable, Tamper Proof Ledger

Immutability is relative depending on how difficult it is to change something. The scale of immutability can be measured from  "0" -- to -- “The most difficult thing to change in the world”.

As it stands, the most difficult thing to change in the world is the Bitcoin blockchain. It is the highest standard of security that has been achieved thus far. Remember, the Proof of Work is what makes the bitcoin blockchain tamper proof - it is what makes the blockchain immutable.

If another, superior technology, were to break the scale of immutability - the scale would reset, and a new standard of immutability will be defined.

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How To Stake Your WINGS Tokens

By Krisha Aranha / January 18, 2018

Mango Research will be looking into various coins/tokens that allows its holders to earn dividends/rewards by simply staking their coins, or participating on platform events. One such token is the WINGS Token

Wings is a blockchain based, ICO crowdfunding platform. It allows individuals and organization to submit new proposals to the WINGS community (Wings token holders) to forecast on. Both, proposal submitters, and the WINGS community can earn rewards for the creation and forecasting on new proposals. Proposals could vary from a projects ability to raise funds, or meet certain milestones. The more accurate your forecast, the more rewards you stand to gain.

This incentive-based model was designed to encourage participation in filtering out unworthy blockchain projects from high potential/quality blockchain projects.

The WINGS Staking Process

Do not perform these tasks on public/shared computers

Step 1: Sign-up for an account on WINGS.ai

  • Forecasting on a project on the WINGS platform will require you have an account
  • To sign-up for an account, click the "Login" button on the top right hand corner of the WINGS home page, and navigate to the "Create new account" tab
  • This account will generate a wings token address, to which you send your wings tokens. Your WINGS token address can be found under your profile info (top right-hand corner of the WINGS home page)
  • The WINGS tokens in this wallet are the tokens that will be locked in during each forecast (Number of tokens locked in will be the number that you specify during the forecast)

WINGS Token address generated upon account creation

WINGS Token address found under user profile tab

Step 2: Identify & research projects on the WINGS platform

  • Navigate to the WINGS home page to discover live forecasting projects. The forecasting status of the project can be found on the upper right corner of the project thumbnail
  • Since the WINGS reward distribution depends on the accuracy of your forecast, it is beneficial to research the project to make an educated forecast
  • To lead your research efforts, click the project thumbnail to find additional information on the project, the forecast reward, and the forecast start and end dates

Research Tip
Don’t lose sight of the project proposal you’re forecasting on (Ex: If the objective is to forecast the amount of funds that will be raised by a project, check to see if there’s a hard-cap)

Step 3: Sending Funds & Checking Balances

  • In addition to WINGS token, users will be required to have ETH on their account to forecast - 0.01 ETH should be more than enough
  • Since Ethereum smart contracts are executed during forecasting, you will need some Ethereum on your account for transaction costs - aka GAS Costs
  • Users can check their token/crypto balances under the send tab on the user profile. Use the drop down menu to select the token/crypto you want the balance of

This WINGS address can be used for both,  ETH and WINGS

Use the drop-down menu to select token/crypto

Step 4: Forecast Away!  

After completing your due-diligence (whether it is following the herd, or digging into the project), you can start forecasting by clicking the “Start review & valuation” under the project thumbnail

Navigate to the “Valuation & Feedback” tab, and scroll down to enter your forecast values:

  1. Depending on the "Forecast Question", your project valuation will be in terms of Ethereum (ETH) or USD
  2. Explain how you came up with the forecast in the opinion/feedback box 
  3. Specify the number of wings tokens you would like to lock-in for the forecast (Reminder: it will be locked-in until the forecast period has ended)

Recommended: Go with the pre-defined Gas limit & Gas price

Forecasting WINGS - A bet you can't lose

The WINGS forecasting process is like a bet you can’t lose. Here’s how:

  • If your forecast is was not quite accurate, you get back your locked-in WINGS tokens + a small reward
  • If you're one of many people who forecasted accurately, you get back your WINGS tokens + a part of the reward (reward is divided between # of people that forecasted accurately)
  • ​​​​If you're one of few, or the only one who forecasted accurately, you get back your WINGS tokens + a heavy reward

    So no matter what – you get your Wings token back + a potential reward!

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